Illness: This disease is caused by a bacteria that affects dogs but can also infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals, even humans. The organism can spread through infected urine and can survive long periods of time in water.
Symptoms: Weight loss, fever, appetite loss, vomiting, lethargy muscle and/or joint pain, diarrhea, bloody urine
Who's Affected & Why: Any breed of dog can be infected with leptospirosis, but dogs who spend a lot of time outdoors and in the water may be at an increased risk.
How to Prevent & Cope: Leptospirosis can be prevented by proper care of your dog. Dogs should not be allowed to drink from puddles of standing water or to swim in possibly contaminated lakes, streams or other bodies of water. Dogs can also receive a leptospirosis vaccine if their veterinarian recommends it. (Vetstreet)