4. Watch those tails and ears
Despite their fur, pets can develop frostbite, the tissue damage that occurs with cold exposure. "The skin becomes bright red, then pale, then black, after which it can fall off," says Rubin.
Ears, footpads, and the tip of the tail are especially vulnerable. If you suspect frostbite, dampen a towel with warm (not hot) water, and apply it to the affected areas, he says. Wrap the animal in blankets and take it to a vet, who can assess the extent of the tissue damage and treat it. (Not sure if your pet is sick enough to call the vet?